Niobium (Nb)-Plane Target introduce:
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. Niobium is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a hardness similar to that of pure titanium, and it has similar ductility to iron. Its chemical and physical properties are similar to those of tantalum, making it difficult to distinguish the two.
Phase at STP：solid
Appearance：gray metallic, bluish when oxidized
Melting point：2750 K (2477 °C, 4491 °F)
Boiling point：5017 K (4744 °C, 8571 °F)
Density (near r.t.)：8.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion：30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization：689.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity：24.60 J/(mol·K)
Niobium is used in various superconducting materials. These superconducting alloys, also containing titanium and tin, are widely used in the superconducting magnets of MRI scanners. Other applications of niobium include welding, nuclear industries, electronics, optics, numismatics, and jewelry. In the last two applications, the low toxicity and iridescence produced by anodization are highly desired properties. Niobium is considered a technology-critical element.
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