Stainless steel powder metallurgy, as the name implies, is stainless steel manufactured by powder metallurgy. Compared with the stainless steel produced by the traditional melting process, it has the advantages of producing parts close to net shape, high dimensional accuracy, high material utilization, and uniform structure.
The process flow of stainless steel powder metallurgy is to prepare powder -> forming -> sintering
1. Powder preparation: It is the first step in the production of stainless steel by powder metallurgy. It can be water atomization. The molten stainless steel is discharged from the nozzle hole, blown and solidified with high-pressure water to obtain stainless steel powder. The bulk density of water atomized stainless steel powder is 2.5~3.2 g/cm3. It can also be gas atomization. The bulk density of the high-pressure nitrogen atomized powder is 4.8 g/cm3, and the oxygen content of the powder is less than 10-4. The rotating electrode powder method can also be used to produce spherical stainless steel powder.
2. Forming: The forming pressure is 550~830 MPa.
3. Sintering: Because the alloy elements in stainless steel are easy to oxidize, it must be sintered in a protective atmosphere with extremely low oxygen content. If hydrogen or decomposed ammonia is used as the protective atmosphere, the dew point should be -45~-50°C. Vacuum sintering can also be used, and the sintering temperature is 1120~1150℃. These stainless steel powders can also be packed into the sheath, vacuum-sealed, cold isostatic pressing, and then hot isostatic pressing to densify the material. The process parameters are 1050°C and the pressure is 2 kPa.
Compared with ordinary cast and forged stainless steel, stainless steel powder metallurgy has small segregation of alloy elements, fine grain size, fine and even distribution of impure inclusions, and higher mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. In particular, high-nitrogen stainless steel produced by powder metallurgy has a much lower cost than high-pressure smelting. At the same time, powder metallurgy high-nitrogen stainless steel has a series of excellent properties and has a very broad application prospect.
The stainless steel prepared by the stainless steel powder metallurgy method can refine the microstructure and reduce the segregation of alloying elements, thereby improving the performance of the material. In addition, it can save raw materials and energy consumption, and achieve low-carbon, green and environmental protection. It has been widely used in machinery, chemical industry, shipbuilding, automobile, instrumentation and other industries.
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