What is Nitinol?
Nitinol is a shape memory alloy, which is a special alloy that can
automatically restore its plastic deformation to its original shape at a certain
temperature. Its expansion rate is more than 20%, its fatigue life is up to 1×10
to the 7th power, its damping characteristic is 10 times higher than that of
ordinary springs, and its corrosion resistance is better than the best medical
stainless steel at present, so it can meet all kinds of engineering and It is an
excellent functional material for medical application requirements.
The main properties of Nitinol
In addition to the unique shape memory function, the memory alloy also has excellent characteristics such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, high damping and super elasticity.
1. Shape memory characteristics: Shape memory is when the parent phase of a certain shape is cooled from above Af temperature to below Mf temperature to form martensite, the martensite is deformed at a temperature below Mf, and heated to below Af temperature, accompanied by reverse phase Changes, the material will automatically restore its shape in the parent phase. In fact, the shape memory effect is a thermally induced phase transformation process of Nitinol.
2. Superelasticity: The so-called superelasticity refers to the phenomenon that the sample produces a strain much larger than the elastic limit strain under the action of external force, and the strain can automatically recover when unloaded. That is, in the state of the parent phase, due to the action of the applied stress, the stress-induced martensitic transformation occurs, so that the alloy exhibits a mechanical behavior different from that of ordinary materials. Its elastic limit is much greater than that of ordinary materials, and it is no longer obeyed. K’s law.
3. Corrosion resistance: Studies have shown that the corrosion resistance of nickel-titanium wire is similar to that of stainless steel wire.
4. Sensitivity to temperature changes in the oral cavity: the orthodontic power of stainless steel wire and CoCr alloy orthopedic wire is basically not affected by the temperature in the oral cavity. The corrective force of the super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy orthopedic wire changes with the change of the oral cavity temperature. When the amount of deformation is constant. As the temperature rises, the correction power increases. On the one hand, it can accelerate the movement of teeth. This is because temperature changes in the oral cavity will stimulate the blood flow in the stagnant blood flow due to the capillary stagnation caused by the orthodontic device, so that the repair cells can be fully nourished and maintained during the tooth movement. Its vitality and normal function. On the other hand, orthodontists cannot precisely control or measure the orthodontic force in the oral environment.
5. Anti-toxicity: In general, the surface layer of titanium oxide acts as a barrier, making Ni-Ti alloys have good biocompatibility. TiXOy and TixNiOy in the surface layer can inhibit the release of Ni.
6. Gentle orthodontic power: currently commercially used orthopedic wires include austenitic stainless steel wires, cobalt-chromium-nickel alloy wires, nickel-chromium alloy wires, Australian alloy wires and titanium alloy wires. Regarding the load-displacement curves of these orthodontic wires under tensile test and three-point bending test conditions. The unloading curve platform of Nitinol is the lowest and the flattest, indicating that it can provide the most durable and soft correction force.
7. Good shock absorption characteristics: The greater the vibration caused by chewing and night molars to the arch wire, the greater the damage to the root and periodontal tissues. Through the results of different arch wire attenuation experiments, it is found that the vibration amplitude of stainless steel wire is larger than that of super-elastic Ni-Ti wire. The initial vibration amplitude of super-elastic Ni-Ti arch wire is only half of that of stainless steel wire. The health of teeth is very important, and traditional arch wires, such as stainless steel wires, tend to increase root resorption.
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