Medical metal materials that have been used clinically mainly include cobalt-based alloys, titanium-based alloys, stainless steel, shape memory alloys, precious metals, pure metals niobium, zirconium, titanium, and tantalum. Stainless steel, cobalt-based alloys and titanium-based alloys have the characteristics of high strength, good toughness and high stability, and are the three types of clinically commonly used medical metal materials. With the advancement of preparation technology and technology, new types of biometal materials are constantly emerging, such as powder metallurgy alloys, high-entropy alloys, amorphous alloys, and low-modulus titanium alloys.
(1) Mechanical properties. Biomedical metal materials should generally have sufficient strength and toughness, appropriate elasticity and hardness, good fatigue resistance, creep resistance, and necessary wear resistance and self-lubricity.
(2) Corrosion resistance.
(3) Biocompatibility. Specifically embodied in: non-toxic, non-irritating, non-carcinogenic, non-mutagenic, etc.; human body has no rejection reaction; it can be firmly combined with surrounding bones and other tissues, and it is best to form chemical bonds and have biological activity; no hemolysis , Coagulation reaction, that is, anti-thrombotic.
Biomedical titanium alloy materials are a class of functional structural materials used in biomedical engineering, commonly used in the production and manufacture of surgical implants and orthopedic devices. Titanium alloy medical device products such as artificial joints, dental implants and vascular stents are used for clinical diagnosis, treatment, repair, replacement of human tissues or organs, or to enhance the function of human tissues or organs, and their role cannot be replaced by drugs.
Pure titanium has the advantages of non-toxicity, light weight, high strength and good biocompatibility. In the 1950s, the United States and Britain began to use pure titanium for living organisms. After the 1960s, titanium alloys began to be widely used clinically as human implant materials. From the initial Ti-6Al-4V to the subsequent Ti-5Al-2.5Fe and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys and the new β-titanium alloys developed in recent years, the research on titanium alloys in human implant materials has been rapid development of.
Co-based alloys usually refer to Co-Cr alloys, and there are two basic grades: Co-Cr-Mo alloy and Co-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy. The microstructure of Co-Cr-Mo alloy is cobalt-based austenitic structure, which can be forged or cast, but it is very difficult to manufacture and process. Its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are better than stainless steel. It is a relatively good biomedical metal material at this stage. Forged cobalt-based alloy is a new type of material used to manufacture the backbone of joint replacement prosthesis connectors, such as knee and hip replacement prostheses.
The American Society for Testing and Materials recommends 4 cobalt-based alloys that can be used in surgical implants: forged Co-Cr-Mo alloy (F76), forged Co-Cr-W-Ni alloy (F90), and forged Co-Ni-Cr -Mo alloy (F562), forged CoNi-Cr-Mo-W-Fe alloy (F563), of which F76 and F562 have been widely used in implant manufacturing.
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